This paper offers a concise and selective overview of regional development theories. Starting from traditional regional growth theory, it introduces next findings from location and agglomeration theory, including infrastructure and network modeling. Next, innovation, entrepreneurship and knowledge are addressed, and interpreted as critical success conditions for modern regional development. Elements from endogenous growth theory and the new economic geography are introduced as well. Finally, attention is paid to the regional convergence debate, while the paper concludes with some prospective views.