Based on a thorough review of the relationship between agriculture and biodiversity, the purpose of this study is to consider how policies, particularly the Common Agricultural policy (CAP), have worked in terms of their design, coordination and implementation for sustaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services through agriculture, and how their role can be enhanced in the future to contribute towards meeting the EU’s biodiversity goals. The interactions between forest management and biodiversity were out with the remit of this study. It considers the impacts and effectiveness of the current suite of policy measures, both within and outside the CAP, on delivering biodiversity benefits through agriculture and mitigating adverse agricultural impacts. Stepping back from a purely agricultural focus, the study also considers how biodiversity associated with farmland can be delivered alongside other economic and social priorities in rural areas. It concludes by discussing the policy developments needed, particularly within the CAP, to ensure that biodiversity associated with agriculture is delivered as a strategic priority.