• DISCLAIMER
  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.1 Main groups of migrants, refugees and asylum applicants
  • 1.2 General trends in emigration and immigration
  • 1.3 Recent changes
  • 2 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS
  • 2.1 General structure of the political system and institutional context relevant to migration and asylum
  • 2.2 General political developments
  • 2.3 Central policy debates and political developments related to migration, integration and asylum issues
  • 2.3.1 Managed immigration
  • 2.3.2 Gates of entry and border control
  • 2.3.3 Integration and settlement
  • 2.3.4 Refugee protection and asylum
  • 2.3.5 Citizenship and naturalisation
  • 2.3.6 Return
  • 2.3.7 Other policy debates and political developments
  • 2.4 Institutional developments
  • 3 LEGISLATIVE DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AREA OF MIGRATION AND ASYLUM
  • 3.1 General structure of the legal system
  • 3.2 Legislative developments
  • 3.2.1 Managed immigration
  • 3.2.2 Gates of entry and border control
  • 3.2.3 Integration and settlement
  • 3.2.4 Refugee protection and asylum
  • 3.2.5 Citizenship and naturalisation
  • 3.2.6 Return
  • 3.2.7 Other legislative developments
  • 3.3 Implementation of EU legislation
  • 4 OTHER POLICY IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
  • 4.1 Labour market and employment
  • 4.2 Housing and urban development
  • 4.3 Education
  • 4.4 Health care
  • 4.5 Family, youth and the elderly
  • 4.6 Women
  • 4.7 Vulnerable groups
  • 4.8 Discrimination