• 1 Introduction
  • 2 Model and data
  • 3 Main results
  • 4 Robustness checks
  • 4.1 Specifications of gravity model
  • 4.2 Spatial autocorrelation
  • 4.3 Endogeneity
  • 5 Extensions
  • 5.1 Non-linearity of income and human rights violations
  • 5.2 Migration and the linguistic factors
  • 6 Conclusion
  • Literature