• 1 Introduction
  • 2 Review of Previous Studies
  • 3 Theoretical Considerations and Hypotheses
  • 4 Data
  • 5 Empirical Results from First League German Soccer
  • 6 The Estimation of "Difference-in-Differences"
  • 7 Empirical Results of The Estimation of "Difference-in-Differences"
  • 8 Does The New Rule Make Matches More Unfair?
  • 9 Conclusions and Outlook
  • References