• Executive summary
  • Introduction
  • I. The international legal framework
  • 1. United Nations
  • 2. Council of Europe
  • 2.1. European Convention on Human Rights
  • 2.2. Council of Europe soft law
  • 2.3. European Social Charter
  • 3. Relevance for the European Union
  • II. Development in the European Union
  • 1. EU member state laws before the adoption of Directive 2000/78
  • 2. Development on the level of the Union
  • 2.1. Action of the EU institutions before the adoption of Directive 2000/78
  • 2.2. Adoption of Directive 2000/78
  • 2.3. The Charter of Fundamental Rights and the general principle of non-discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation
  • III. The prohibition of discrimination under Directive 2000/78
  • 1. Aim of the Directive
  • 2. Scope
  • 2.1. Personal scope
  • 2.2. Material scope
  • 3.Forms of discrimination
  • 3.1. Direct discrimination
  • 3.2. Indirect discrimination
  • 3.3. Harassment
  • 3.4. Instruction to discriminate
  • 4. Sexual orientation as a ground for discrimination
  • 4.1. The term ‘sexual orientation’
  • 4.2. Actual sexual orientation
  • 4.3. Assumed sexual orientation
  • 4.4. Associated sexual orientation
  • 5. Exceptions or derogations
  • 5.1.Introductory remarks
  • 5.2.The general exception of Article 2(5)
  • 5.3.Sexual orientation as a genuine and determining occupational requirement
  • 5.4.Positive action
  • 5.5.No derogation from the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation for churches and ethos-based organisations under Article 4(2)
  • 6.Burden of proof
  • 7.Remedies and sanctions
  • IV. CJEU case law with regard to sexual orientation discrimination
  • 1. Employment benefits: the Maruko, Römer and Hay judgments
  • ...
  • 2. Hate speech and the burden of proof: the ACCEPT judgment
  • V. Implementation of Directive 2000/78 in the Member States and further evolution in national legislation and case-law
  • ...
  • VI.Future developments of protection against discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation in the EU
  • 1. ...