• Introduction
  • I Legal and Social Context
  • 1. The US
  • 2. Canada
  • 3. South Africa
  • 4. India
  • II Sources of Equality Law
  • 1. Constitutional Sources
  • 2. Statutory Provisions
  • 3. International Law
  • III Grounds or Protected Characteristics
  • 1. Specifying Grounds
  • 1.1 Constitutional Level
  • 1.2 Statutory Level
  • 2. Intersectionality
  • IV Coverage
  • 1. Constitutional Level
  • 2. Statutory Level
  • V Who is Bound?
  • 1. Constitutional Level
  • 2. Statutory Level
  • VI Definitions of Equality
  • 1. From Formal to Substantive Equality
  • 2. Duty of Accommodation
  • 3. Harassment
  • VII Affirmative Action
  • 1. USA
  • 2. Canada
  • 3. South Africa
  • 4. India
  • VIII Justification Defences
  • Conclusion: A Comparison with EU law
  • 1. Sources of EU Non-discrimination Law
  • 2. Grounds
  • 3. Coverage
  • 4. Scope: Who is Bound?
  • 5. Definitions of Equality, including Defences and Affirmative Action