• Preface
  • Introduction
  • 1 Protected grounds of discrimination
  • A. Introduction to the transposition of the anti-discrimination Directives
  • B. Which grounds are covered?...
  • D.Religion or belief
  • Specific provisions on ... – ethos-based organisations
  • E.Disability
  • Specific provisions on disability – the reasonable accommodation duty
  • ...
  • ... disability – health and safety
  • F.Sexual orientation
  • G.Age
  • ... age
  • H.Assumed and associated discrimination
  • I.Multiple discrimination
  • 2 Definitions and scope
  • A. Direct discrimination
  • ...
  • B. Indirect discrimination
  • ...
  • C. Harassment
  • ...
  • D. Instructions to discriminate...
  • E. Personal scope
  • F. Material scope
  • Employment
  • Social protection
  • Social advantages
  • Education
  • Access to and supply of goods and services<br<Beyond the Directives
  • 3 Exceptions to the principle of equal treatment and positive action
  • A. Genuine and determining occupational requirements
  • B. Armed forces and other specific occupations
  • C. Nationality
  • ...
  • D. Family benefits
  • E. Public security, public order, criminal offences, protection of health, and protection of the rights and freedoms of others
  • F. Other exceptions
  • G. Positive action
  • ...
  • 4 Access to justice and effective enforcement
  • A. Judicial and administrative procedures
  • Legal action in the private sector
  • ... public sector
  • Obstacles to effective access to justice
  • B. Legal standing and associations
  • Entities which may engage in procedures
  • ...
  • To engage ‘on behalf of’
  • Collective redress
  • Legitimate interest
  • C. Burden of proof
  • D. Victimisation
  • ...
  • E. Sanctions and remedies<br<5 The role of equality bodies compared
  • A. Grounds covered
  • ...
  • B. Competencies of equality bodies
  • 6 Implementation and compliance
  • A. Dissemination of information and social and civil dialogue
  • ... and awareness-raising
  • ...
  • Dissemination of information and wareness-raising
  • ...
  • B. Ensuring compliance
  • Conclusion