• Preface
  • Introduction
  • 1 Protected grounds of discrimination
  • A. Which grounds are covered?
  • Table: Protected grounds
  • B. Racial or ethnic origin
  • C. Religion or belief
  • Specific provisions ... – ethos-based organisations
  • D. Disability
  • Specific provisions ... – the reasonable accommodation duty
  • Table: ...
  • Specific provisions on disability – health and safety
  • E. Sexual orientation
  • F. Age
  • Specific provisions on age
  • G. Assumed and associated discrimination
  • H. Multiple discrimination
  • 2 Definitions and scope
  • A. Direct discrimination
  • ...
  • B. Indirect discrimination
  • ...
  • C. Harassment
  • ...
  • D. Instructions to discriminate
  • ...
  • E. Personal scope
  • F. Material scope
  • ...
  • Employment
  • Social protection
  • Social advantages
  • Education
  • Access to and supply of goods and services
  • Beyond the Directives
  • 3 Exceptions to the principle of equal treatment and positive action
  • A. Genuine and determining occupational requirements
  • B. Armed forces and other specific occupations
  • C. Nationality
  • ...
  • D. Family benefits
  • E. Public security, public order, criminal offences, protection of health, and protection of the rights and freedoms of others
  • F. Other exceptions
  • G. Positive action
  • ...
  • 4 Access to justice and effective enforcement
  • A. Judicial and administrative procedures
  • Legal action in the private sector
  • Legal action in the public sector
  • Obstacles to effective access to justice
  • B. Legal standing and associations
  • Entities that may engage in procedures
  • ...
  • To engage ‘on behalf of’
  • Collective redress
  • Legitimate interest
  • C. Burden of proof
  • D. Victimisation
  • ...
  • E. Sanctions and remedies
  • 5 The role of equality bodies compared
  • ...
  • 6 Implementation and compliance
  • A. Dissemination of information and social and civil dialogue
  • Dissemination of information and awareness raising
  • Social and civil dialogue
  • B. Ensuring compliance
  • Conclusion
  • ANNEX 1 ...
  • ...