• 1 Introduction
  • 2 Motives for engaging in contract research
  • 3 Conceptual framework
  • 3.1 Transaction cost theory and innovation activities
  • 3.2 Firm-level effects and innovation activities
  • 3.3 Governance modes and innovation performance
  • 4 Research design
  • 4.1 Model
  • 4.2 Data
  • 4.3 Empirical proxy variables
  • 5 Results
  • 5.1 Descriptive statistics