The European Unionu0092s relation with Turkey is a permanent question of relations between the West and the Orient. The EU finally gave Turkey the status of a membership candidate at its Helsinki European Council in 1999. The Commissionu0092s opinion of 6 October 2004 that opens the EU door to Turkey is another step closer towards Turkeyu0092s objective of joining the Union. However, this calls for a consultation with EU citizens because it will lead to unforeseen changes in the Western world and its neighbourhood. The paper states that European citizens expect to have a say in this matter. The paper argues that, in contrast with all previous enlargements, the accession of Turkey to EU membership does not entail a simple adoption of the u0093acquis communautaireu0094 by the candidate country. It demands the setting up of a clear political project, based on common values and unprecedented solidarity. The paper wonders whether these exigencies are realistic, and whether there really is no third way between full membership and a complete rejection of Turkey.