Independent investigation of accidents/incidents and occurrence reporting is essential in the drive to improve aviation safety. This study will assist the European Parliament in reviewing current EU policy for greater efficiency in civil aviation accident investigation. This is being addressed under a proposal for a new regulation which is an essential element of this study in assessing the existing problems and shortcomings in the investigation and prevention of accidents and incidents in civil aviation. Accident investigation and occurrence reporting in EU aviation are currently regulated separately under EC law. A concise overview of the current European legal framework of accident/incident investigation in EU aviation, in the context of Directive 94/56/EC, has been provided. The legal framework has been contrasted with its practical implementation within EU aviation. Beyond accident investigation, the crucial element of occurrence reporting has also been analysed and assessed against its legal provisions within Directive 2003/42/EC.