ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS IN THE NONPROFIT SECTOR: THE CASE OF THE NONPROFIT PROFESSIONAL THEATRE (BUREAUCRATIZATION, PROFESSIONALIZATION, INNOVATION; PENNSYLVANIA)
The main hypothesis presented is that as organizations affected by their environment become increasingly bureaucratized and professionalized, they may become similar to each other, less innovative and increasingly more standardized. This hypothesis was targeted as the nonprofit sector, in particular, the nonprofit professional theatre, consisting primarily of two theatre types: regional and Off-Off Broadway theatres. Hypotheses were developed depicting the interrelationships between the organizational environment, internal process of bureaucratization and professionalization, and the degree of innovativeness of the final outcome. These were tested at two levels of analysis: (1) the national scene of the nonprofit theatres; and (2) two regional theatres in the Philadelphia area. On both levels two research methods were used: (1) informant interviewing; (2) analysis of documentary material. On the national scene we found that the environment structure primarily, nature of economic support, markets served and processes of competition and cooperation (among nonprofit organizations and between themselves and their for-profit counterparts) may enhance bureaucratization and professionalization. This was reflected in (A) organizational adjustments which increase similarity, efficiency and professionalism, thus enhancing resemblance to the commercial theatre structure and gradual acceptance of its norms; (B) the emergent product--the repertoire performed tended to exhibit, on one hand, a low risk policy of repertoire selection as well as a rise in professional standards. On the other hand, in contrast to our hypothesis, this was also coupled with an increase in innovativeness, exemplified in the magnitude of new plays and playwrights, thus enhancing the nonprofit theatre's place as an alternative to the commercial stage. Close relations between bureaucratization and professionalization were also found among the two theatres studied. However, a permanent and a cohesive group of artists was capable of reducing potential bureaucratization as well as increasing innovation. Its professionalism was nevertheless an outcome of a gradual group process. In contrast, a theatre which recruits its workforce on a temporary basis exhibited a higher tendency for bureaucratization, less capability for innovation, and professionalism which was an outcome of the recruitment of highly professional artists.
|Year of publication:||
|Authors:||SHULOV BARKAN, SHLOMIT|
|Type of publication:||Other|
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