• Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Spatial Dimension of Social Exclusion
  • CASE’s Study of Disadvantaged Areas
  • Chapter 1: Identifying and Understanding Disadvantaged Areas
  • Identifying Areas of Concentrated Social Exclusion
  • The Characteristics and Distribution of Poverty Wards
  • Selecting Areas and Neighbourhoods for Our Study
  • Understanding the Dynamics of Areas of Concentrated Social Exclusion
  • Summary
  • Chapter 2: The Twelve Areas
  • Area ‘Type’: Location, Housing and Population Mix
  • Area Characteristics: What are the Areas Like as Places to Live ?
  • Economic Characteristics
  • Housing
  • The Physical Environment
  • Crime, Drugs and Social Order
  • Facilities and Services
  • Social Organisation
  • Reputation and Popularity
  • Chapter 3: Evidence of Social Exclusion
  • Barriers to Workforce Participation and Disengagement from Education and Work
  • Health Problems
  • A Sense of Powerlessness
  • Early Childhood Disadvantage
  • Policy Interventions
  • Area Management and Governance
  • Area-Based Regeneration Initiatives
  • Special Projects, Initiatives and Programmes
  • Chapter 4: Is Anything Changing ?
  • Statistical Evidence of Economic Change
  • Population Change
  • Social Inclusion and Area Change
  • Neighbourhood Change
  • Summary
  • Chapter 5: Discussion and Conclusions
  • Commonly Experienced and Deeply Embedded Problems
  • Community Potential, Services and Investment
  • The Diversity of Disadvantaged Areas
  • Understanding Area Change: Elements of ‘Regeneration’ and Influences on It
  • Cautious Optimism ?
  • References