• 1. Introduction
  • Survey Participants
  • Statistical Evaluation
  • 2. Performance Measures and Reporting Benchmarks
  • Earnings versus Free cash flow
  • Earnings Benchmarks
  • 3. Meeting or Missing Reporting Benchmarks
  • Motivations to meet Earnings Benchmarks
  • Consequences of missing Earnings Benchmarks
  • How to meet or beat Earnings Benchmarks
  • 4 Information Intermediaries and Market Expectations
  • 5 Voluntary Disclosure and Earnings Expectations Guidance
  • How Guidance is provided
  • The Importance of Earnings Guidance
  • Voluntary Disclosure - For better or for worse
  • Notes
  • References