Summary: The Boreal region is the largest biogeographical region of Europe. The climate is cool and mainly continental. It is Europeu0092s forest region, dominated by conifers. The forest area increases, getting more uniform and with less tree species and less biodiversity in the stands. The southern part with deciduous trees may slowly shift northwards with increasing temperature. The species rich small grassland patches are disappearing. Podzol and peat soils are dominant in many parts. 21 out of Europe's 24 largest lakes occur in the region. In summer the region houses vast populations of breeding migrating birds. The large European carnivors still inhabit the region, under severe pressure and facing opposing public interests (conservation, population control). The reindeer and wild living large grazing animals (elk, deer) strongly influence the habitat development in many forest and grassland areas. The region is the wild berry and mushroom region of Europe.
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