• 1. Introduction
  • 2. Work, worklessness and welfare
  • 3. Why might employment have fallen?
  • 4. Labour Force Survey evidence on employment among older workers
  • 4.1 How employment and inactivity change with age
  • 4.2 Variations over time
  • 4.3 Regional changes in unemployment and inactivity
  • 4.4 Qualifications
  • 4.5 Analysis by birth cohort
  • 4.6 Conclusions from Labour Force Survey data
  • 5. What happens to wages as people age?
  • 5.1 Male median wages
  • 5.2 How have male wages changed?
  • 5.3 The cost of job loss
  • 5.4 Female wages
  • Conclusions
  • 6. Results from the British Household Panel Survey
  • 6.1 Who is displaced from the labour market?
  • 6.2 Were older workers initially employed in shrinking industries?
  • 6.3 Who returns to work?
  • 6.4 Can we look further ahead?
  • 6.5 Conclusions from BHPS evidence
  • 7. Other evidence supporting the possible explanations
  • 7.1 Voluntary early retirement
  • 7.2 Occupational pensions
  • 7.3 Early retirement in local authorities
  • 7.4 Incapacity Benefit and Invalidity Benefit
  • 7.5 Age discrimination
  • 8. Conclusions
  • 8.1 Summary of key findings
  • 8.2 What do the results tell us about the explanations of falling employment amongolder workers?
  • 8.3 Why does this matter for policy?
  • Appendix A: Further background information of the sample from the BHPS
  • Variables used in the regressions
  • Probit regressions
  • References