• Executive Summary
  • 1. Introduction
  • Figure 1: University Patents as a Share of All Patents with Domestic Assignees
  • 2. Scientist Commercialization of University Research
  • 3. Measurement Issues
  • 3.1 Patents
  • Figure 2: Patents by Institution and Gender
  • Figure 3: NCI Grant Award by Gender for Patenting Scientists
  • 3.2 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)
  • 4. Determinants of Scientist Commercialization
  • 4.1 Main Factors
  • Social Capital
  • Scientist Commercialization Route
  • Technology Transfer Office
  • Scientific Human Capital
  • Resources
  • Scientist Life-Cycle
  • Locational and Institutional Contexts
  • 5. Estimation of a Probit Model
  • Table 1: The Modes of Commercialization
  • Social Capital
  • Scientist Commercialization Route
  • Technology Transfer Office
  • Scientific Human Capital
  • Resources
  • Scientist Life-Cycle
  • Locational and Institutional Contexts
  • Table 2: Description of Independent Variables
  • Table 3: Means and Standard Devations of All Variables
  • Table 4: Simple Correlation Matrix
  • Figure 4: TTO Helpfulness to Scientist by Commercialization Mode
  • Figure 5: Scientist Commercialization Route by Commercialization Mode
  • Figure 6: Social Capital by Commercialization Mode
  • Table 5: Probit Regression Reesults Estimating Scientist Commercialization - Startups
  • Table 6: Probit Regression Reesults Estimating Scientist Commercialization -License
  • Table 7: Probit Regression Reesults Estimating Scientist Commercialization - Commercialize
  • Table 8: Probit Regression Reesults Estimating Scientist Commercialization - Patents
  • Table 9: Probit Regression Reesults Estimating Scientist Licensing by Helpfulness of TTO
  • 6. Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendix A: Breakdown of Patents by U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Classification