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A system of two components is analyzed as a two-period game. After period 1 the system can be fully operational, in two states of intermediate degradation, or fail. Analogously to changing failure rates in dependent systems analyzed with Markov analysis, unit costs of defense and attack, and...
A system of components can be in series, parallel, or combined series/parallel. The components and system are protected individually and overarchingly by a defender, and attacked individually and overarchingly by an attacker. Both layers of protection have to be breached for an attack to be...
Artificial linear regressions often provide a convenient way to calculate test statistics and estimate covariance matrices. This paper discusses one family of these regressions, called "double-length" because the number of observations in the artificial regression is twice the actual number of...