• Key points (EN, FR, DE)
  • Executive summary (EN, FR, DE)
  • Abbreviations
  • 1. Background and context
  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.2. Legal framework
  • 1.3. Legal and regulatory framework at national level
  • 1.3.1. Overview of the areas and grounds covered in each country
  • 1.3.2. The definition of discrimination
  • 1.3.3. Multiple discrimination
  • 2. Specific structures to access justice in anti-discrimination matters
  • 3. Procedural guarantees
  • 3.1. Legal standing and participatory status
  • 3.1.1. Individual victims of discrimination
  • 3.1.2. Legal entities
  • 3.2. Burden of proof and evidence
  • 3.3. Time limits
  • 3.4. Length of the procedure
  • 3.5. Costs of the procedure
  • 3.5.1. Costs of the judicial proceedings
  • 3.5.2. Legal aid schemes
  • 4. Requirement for an effective, proportionate and dissuasive remedy
  • 5. A summary of issues by country
  • 6. Best practices
  • 7. Conclusions, suggestions and recommendations for possible action at EU and national level
  • 7.1. Recommendations at national level
  • 7.2. Recommendations at EU level
  • Annex IA Specific structures
  • Annex IB Legal standing
  • Annex IC Time
  • Annex ID Legal costs
  • Annex IE Sanctions
  • Annex IF Compensation
  • Annex II Methodology note
  • Annex III Sources of information