• Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Summary
  • CHAPTER 1 Introduction
  • 1.1 The role of technology
  • CHAPTER 2 Overall concepts
  • 2.1 What is identity?
  • 2.2 Is identity theft part of identity fraud?
  • 2.3 Conclusions
  • CHAPTER 3 A typology of identity-related crime
  • 3.1 Options for classification and categorisation
  • 3.2 Identity-related crime for direct economic gain
  • 3.3 Relationship to other major forms of criminal activity
  • 3.4 The means to perpetrate identity-related misuse
  • CHAPTER 4 The consequences of identity-related crime
  • 4.1 The economic costs of identity theft and identity fraud
  • 4.2 Personal impact
  • CHAPTER 5 Responses and mitigation: criminalisation and identity assurance
  • 5.1 How to approach criminalisation?
  • 5.2 Prevention
  • 5.3 Relevant supranational legislative norms
  • 5.4 Public-private international collaboration
  • 5.5 The European policy response
  • 5.6 National responses
  • 5.6.1 Legislation
  • 5.6.2 Non-legal responses
  • CHAPTER 6 Conclusions
  • CHAPTER 7 Country Summaries
  • 7.1 Australia
  • 7.2 Austria
  • 7.3 Belgium
  • 7.4 Bulgaria
  • 7.5 Canada
  • 7.6 China
  • 7.7 Cyprus
  • 7.8 Czech Republic
  • 7.9 Denmark
  • 7.10 Estonia
  • 7.11 Finland
  • 7.12 France
  • 7.13 Germany
  • 7.14 Greece
  • 7.15 Hungary
  • 7.16 India
  • 7.17 Ireland
  • 7.18 Italy
  • 7.19 Japan
  • 7.20 Latvia
  • 7.21 Lithuania
  • 7.22 Luxembourg
  • 7.23 Malta
  • 7.24 The Netherlands
  • 7.25 Poland
  • 7.26 Portugal
  • 7.27 Romania
  • 7.28 Russian Federation
  • 17.29 Slovakia
  • 7.30 Slovenia
  • 7.31 Spain
  • 7.32 Sweden
  • 7.33 United Kingdom
  • 7.34 United States
  • CHAPTER 8 Analysis
  • 8.1 The legal perspective: a comparative overview of legislation
  • ...
  • 8.2 Civil sanctions
  • 8.3 Case law review with respect to identity theft
  • ...
  • 8.4 Identity theft reporting mechanisms
  • CHAPTER 9 Conclusions and recommendations
  • 9.1.1 Key findings
  • 9.1.2 Conclusions ...to legislation
  • 9.1.3...to case law
  • 9.1.4 ...to reporting mechanisms
  • 9.2 Recommendations
  • REFERENCES
  • Appendices<br