• Table of bContents
  • Foreword III
  • 1. Executive summary V
  • Part One 1
  • 2. Introduction 1
  • 2.1. Objectives and Organization of the Study 1
  • 2.2. Process of Conducting the Comparative Study 2
  • 3. Theoretical, Methodological, and Terminological Considerations 3
  • 3.1. Theoretical and Methodological Framework 3
  • 3.2. Official Terms and Categories 4
  • Part Two 9
  • 4. Enrolment of Migrants and Minorities in Education 9
  • 4.1. Comparison of Education Enrolment Figures (General) 9
  • 4.2. Enrolment Trends 10
  • 4.3. Comparison of Education Enrolment Figures in Primary Education 13
  • 4.3.1. Nationality and Ethnic Minority Group Size (aggregate data) 13
  • 4.3.2. Largest Nationality and Ethnic Minority Groups 14
  • 4.4. Comparison of Education Enrolment Figures in Secondary Education 19
  • 4.5. Comparison of Enrolment Figures in Special Education 28
  • 4.6. Comparison of University and Higher Education Enrolment Figures 34
  • 5. Achievement and Underachievement 43
  • 5.1. Educational Achievement of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities 43
  • 5.2. Reasons for Academic Underachievement of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities 53
  • 5.2.1. Factors relating to Minority Pupils, their Parents, and the Cultural Group 54
  • 5.2.2. Factors of Institutional Discrimination 54
  • 5.2.3. Factors related to Teachers or Peers 55
  • 5.2.4. Other Factors 56
  • 6. The Educational Situation of National Autochthonous and Indigenous Minorities 57
  • VII Migrants, minorities and education u0097 European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
  • 7. Language Programmes, Intercultural Education, and "Good Practices" 71
  • 7.1. Native Language Programmes 71
  • 7.2. Second Language Programmes 79 7.3. Intercultural, Multicultural, and Anti-racist Curricula 87
  • 7.4. Good Practice Examples for Reducing Racism, Xenophobia and Anti-Semitism and for Fostering Diversity 95
  • 8. Discrimination and Anti-Discrimination 103
  • 8.1. Legislation and Monitoring of Ethnic Discrimination, Racism, and Inequalities 103