The main problems in southern and eastern Mediterranean countries are the inadequate treatment of urban waste and management of chemicals in contrast to northern countries where efforts should be deployed to overcome the problems raised by use of chemicals and their impacts on environment. In the northern Mediterranean region, which is the most industrialised, there are a priori necessary prevention mechanisms, correction technologies and the appropriate legal framework. However, there is a lack of political willingness from the countries to enforce environmental regulation. The southern Mediterranean region is, however, growing at the expense of the environment since neither the economic conditions nor the required technologies are available. The number one priority in environmental management in the Mediterranean region is to develop the necessary environmental legislation and to enforce it. Ratification of protocols remains a challenge for the region. Most of the existing multilateral environmental agreements have low numbers of ratifications.