• Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • I. Origins of the burden of proof provisions
  • II. European law on equal treatment and non-discrimination
  • II.1. The gender equality provisions
  • II.2. The Equal Treatment and Non-discrimination Directives
  • III. Previous studies on the burden of proof
  • IV. Recent judgments of the CJEU relevant to the burden of proof
  • V. Theoretical underpinnings and general considerations
  • V.1. General note
  • V.2. Discovery of facts: evidence
  • V.3. The form of discrimination to be proven
  • V.4. Conduct
  • V.5. Harm
  • V.6. Protected ground
  • V.7. Comparators
  • V.8. Bias, causation, negligence and intent
  • V.9. Prima facie cases: the point of (no) return
  • V.10. Justification defence
  • V.11. Rebuttal
  • V.12. Procedural scheme
  • VI. Implementation in Member States
  • VI.1. General trends and patterns
  • VI.2. Application of the burden of proof rules in practice
  • VII. Practical concerns relating to the burden of proof rules
  • VII.1. Right to information
  • VII.2. Establishing a comparator
  • VII.3. The prima facie case
  • VII.4. Potentially different standards according to the protected ground
  • VII.5. Justification and rebuttal
  • VII.6. Different outcomes according to the legal forum used
  • VII.7. Different outcomes according to whether the litigant is an individual or an NGO
  • VIII. Possible improvements to the implementation of the burden of proof provisions
  • Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • Table of legislation
  • List of cases