Globalization is not a purely contemporary phenomenon. According to Chanda (2007) it has “worked silently for millennia without being given a name.” Indeed, globalization processes are continuously evolving, driven by the economic aspirations of millions around the globe— the more people involved, the faster the globalization is. This study’s goal is to analyze the effects of globalization—defined as the integration of economic activities, primarily via markets—on the economic viability and global competitiveness of the European Union (EU) forest sector, in particular forestry. It covers the entire EU, including the accession and the western Balkans countries, from the present to 2030. It also includes a (limited) review of cultural, social, and political globalization.