• Executive summary
  • 1 Introduction
  • 1.1 Research objectives
  • 1.2 Research approach
  • 1.3 Terminology
  • 1.4 Legal context
  • 1.5 Structure of this report
  • 2 Healthcare and corruption
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Informal payments
  • 2.3 Medical devices
  • 2.4 Pharmaceuticals
  • 3 Typologies of healthcare corruption
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Towards a corruption-in-healthcare typology
  • 3.3 Bribery in medical service delivery
  • 3.4 Procurement corruption
  • 3.5 Improper marketing relations
  • 3.6 Misuse of (high level) positions
  • 3.7 Undue reimbursement claims
  • 3.8 Fraud and embezzlement
  • 3.9 Misuse of legal rights
  • 4 Policies and practices
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Generic policies and practices
  • 4.3 Control and sanctioning
  • 4.4 Bribery in medical service delivery
  • 4.5 Procurement corruption
  • 4.6 Improper marketing relations
  • 4.7 Critical patient, pressure group and media involvement
  • 4.8 Findings
  • 5 Conclusions and recommendations
  • Annex A 86 cases of corruption in health
  • Annex B Eurobarometer perceptions
  • Annex C EU 28 MS research
  • Annex D Country reports
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • The Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • Annex E Country profile template