• Preface
  • Country codes
  • Summary
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Background
  • 1.2 Research objective
  • 1.3 Research approach
  • 2. Legal situation on minimum sanctions
  • 2.1 Scoping and definition
  • 2.2 Minimum sanctions – general overview
  • 2.2.1 Minimum imprisonment sanctions
  • ...
  • 2.3 General “technical” minimum limits
  • 2.3.1 General minimum limits of imprisonment sanctions
  • ...
  • 2.4 Categorisation of offences
  • 2.5 Minimum sanctions for specific offences
  • 2.5.1 Preliminary remarks
  • ...
  • 2.6 Sources of minimum sanctions
  • 2.7 Limitations to minimum sanctions
  • 2.8 Situations in which minimum sanctions fall below their levels
  • 2.8.1 Introduction
  • ...
  • 3. Individualisation of sanctions
  • 3.1 Sentencing: imposition of sanction
  • 3.1.1 Mitigating circumstances and reduced sanction
  • ...
  • 3.2 Mitigation: early release mechanisms
  • 3.3 Mitigation in practice
  • 3.3.1 Experience
  • ...
  • 4. Implications of minimum sanctions on criminal law
  • 4.1 On substantive law
  • 4.2 On procedural law
  • 5. Legal history and debate
  • 5.1 Brief overview of the legal history throughout the Member States
  • 5.2 Purpose of minima: practitioners’ perception at the national level
  • 5.3 Trends and tendencies in the Member States
  • 5.4 Constitutional debate in the Member States
  • 5.5 Obstacles to EU legislation in regard to minimum sanctions?
  • 6. Statistical analysis
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Levels of minimum sanctions
  • 6.3 Imposition and execution
  • 6.5 Deterrence
  • 6.5.1 Minimum sanctions and deterrence
  • ...
  • 7. Summary and conclusions
  • 7.1 Summary of the results
  • 7.1.1 Legal systems
  • ...
  • 7.2 Conclusions
  • 7.2.1 General remarks
  • ...
  • Bibliography
  • Annex A Mitigating circumstances
  • Annex B Imposition and execution
  • Annex C Research team
  • Annex D Questionnaire