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  • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • KEY POINTS TO NOTE
  • MAIN FINDINGS
  • 1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.1 Study rationale
  • 1.2 Study context
  • 1.3 Study aims
  • 1.4 Scope of the study
  • 1.5 Structure of the report
  • 2 CONTEXTUAL OVERVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SITUATION CONCERNING THE RETURN OF THIRD-COUNTRY NATIONALS
  • 2.1 National measures implementing the Return Directive or equivalent standards
  • 2.2 Return of irregularly staying third-country nationals as a priority in Member States
  • 3 SYSTEMATIC ISSUANCE OF RETURN DECISIONS
  • 3.1 Authorities involved in the issuance of a return decision
  • 3.2 Issuance of return decisions
  • 3.3 Timing, validity and scope of return decisions
  • 3.4 Guarantees concerning the issuance of the return decision
  • 4 RISK OF ABSCONDING
  • 4.1 Objective circumstances constituting a rebuttable presumption of the existence of a risk of absconding
  • 4.2 Measures aiming to avoid the risk of absconding
  • 4.3 Challenges in determining the existence of a risk of absconding
  • 5 EFFECTIVE ENFORCEMENT OF RETURN DECISIONS
  • 5.1 Sanctions in case of non-compliance with the return decision
  • 5.2 Mutual recognition of return decisions
  • 5.3 Travel documents
  • 5.4 Use of detention in the return procedure
  • 5.5 Use of alternatives to detention in the return procedure
  • 5.6 Challenges and good practices related to detention and alternatives to detention
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