• 1. Introduction
  • 2. Background
  • 2.1 Income gradients in childhood abilities
  • 2.2 Factors mediating the relationship between income and outcomes
  • 3. Methodology
  • 3.1 Conceptual framework
  • 3.2 Empirical model
  • 4. Data
  • 14.1 The ALSPAC cohort
  • 4.2 Child outcome measures
  • 4.3 Early income and other distal characteristics
  • 4.4 Proximal variables
  • 4.5 Sample selection
  • 4.6 The income gradients
  • 5. Results
  • 5.1 Income, proximal mediators and child outcomes
  • 5.2 Income, the other distal factors and child outcomes
  • 5.3 The role of the adverse proximal factors associated with particular types of socio-economic disadvantage
  • 6. Discussion and conclusions
  • 6.1 The role of parental education and other characteristics of low income families
  • 6.2 The role of specific proximal mediators
  • 6.3 Adverse consequences of higher-income lifestyles
  • 6.4 The role for income
  • References