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Austerity measures are frequently enacted when the sustainability of public finances is in doubt. Such doubts are reflected in high sovereign yield spreads and put further strain on government finances. Is austerity successful in restoring market confidence, bringing about a reduction in yield...
Given the consolidation needs and the provisions of the new fiscal rule, budgetary planning in Germany has become more demanding. Fiscal projections are already difficult since the link between total tax revenue and economic activity is observed to be unstable. This Country Focus identifies...
This study focuses on the most important drivers of the swift current account rebalancing which is taking place in Estonia and considers the possible way forward. After very large deficits in the boom years (2005-2007), Estonia's current account balance turned positive in the downturn, as...
Romania's domestic demand boom over the past few years has led to rapidly widening current account deficits, reaching an estimated 13½% of GDP in 2008. High private sector dissaving has been exacerbated by a procycylical fiscal policy, with the public deficit likely to exceed 3% of GDP in 2008....
Measuring public sector efficiency is not generally straightforward and presents a difficult empirical issue, specifically in terms of adequate measurement of costs and outcomes. This Country Focus attempts to measure the efficiency of public spending in Malta by applying two alternative...
The UK's self-sufficiency in fossil fuels shields public finances from the negative effects of higher oil prices on general economic activity. Changes in the international price of oil affect government revenues from the corporate and household sectors. Taxes on oil production are estimated to...
The dominance of electoral considerations in determining budgetary outcomes has been evident in Hungary over the last 15 years, with government deficits reaching their highest levels in election years (1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006). This deterioration of public finances has largely been possible...
Since the early 1990s Croatia has managed a rather successful transition process with solid growth, low inflation and exchange rate stability. Better integration into international financial markets, capital account liberalisation and banking sector reform have facilitated access to foreign...
This Country Focus studies the impact of changes in government expenditure in Hungary over the period 1997Q1 to 2005Q4 using a structural vector-autoregressive model. The results suggest that discretionary shifts in government expenditure have a mixed impact on the economy. In particular, while...