The consumption of energy and the direction of its further development has always depended on the choices made by consumers, producers, governments and societies. The selection was made according to the criteria costs, quality, reliability, security, convenience and social impacts. Governments have a key role in establishing the framework within which this can take place. The broad pattern of different fuels and propulsion technologies which currently exists will persist also in the future. However, not all technological options will have relevant shares in the market, some will exist in niche applications only. These niches can be technological niches which are widely spread over the world (such as current battery-powered electrical propulsion), or specific regional niches relevant to the specific characteristics of a region (as can currently be found on some islands). In future as in the present, the major role in transport will be played by a relatively small number of fuels and technologies. This study will focus on these fuels and technologies, it touches only very briefly or does not explicitly mention other existing, but not as relevant fuels and technologies.