Summary: This report maps the diffusion of gender quotas in Europe and lists the many different types of quotas in use. The arguments for and against quotas are studied, and the implementation and effect of gender quotas are scrutinised. In-depth case studies have been conducted of eight countries, four with legislated gender quotas Belgium, France, Slovenia and Spain and four with voluntary gender quotas Germany, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom. [...]The report shows that gender quotas have led to remarkably rapid increases in womens representation in some cases but also to disappointment in other cases. The main conclusion is that, in order to be effective, a quota system must be compatible with the electoral system in place and that quota rules for example, of 30 or 40 per cent women on electoral lists must be supplemented with rules concerning rank order as well as in the case of legislated quotas effective legal sanctions. Quotas are only one among many measures for increasing womens political representation. In general, the political parties are the gatekeepers to gender balance in political decision making because they control the secret garden of nominations.
Obgleich kontrovers diskutiert, kommen Geschlechterquoten bei Wahlen heute in nahezu der Hälfte aller Länder der Welt zur Anwendung. Noch bis vor Kurzem zählte Europa nicht zu den Vorreitern dieser neuen Entwicklung. Der vorliegende Bericht zeigt allerdings auf, dass fünf Länder der Europäischen Union (EU) bzw. des Europäischen Wirtschaftsraums (EWR) zuletzt Spanien, Portugal und Slowenien Geschlechterquoten per Gesetz eingeführt haben und in mehr als der Hälfte der EU/EWR-Länder einige Parteien freiwillige Quoten für ihre parteiinternen Wahllisten zur Anwendung bringen.[...]
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