The candidate countries adopted a low profile in the Convention. They were quietly supportive of most proposals on the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) front but concerned about the implications of some proposals for the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). These concerns focused on possible duplication with NATO and ensuring that the US was not marginalised by any changes. The Iraq war exposed fault lines within the present member states and caused a rift between 'old Europe' and 'new Europe'. It is unlikely that the diplomatic tensions surrounding the letters signed by certain countries during the Iraq crisis will be repeated. Lessons have been learned. Both the CFSP and the ESDP have always registered high in terms of public approval. The latest research shows that public opinion in the candidate countries is equally supportive. The challenge for the enlarged Union will be to agree on strategic priorities for the Union and to ensure that they make the best use of the new procedures in the constitutional treaty, even though they are adequate in many respects. As opposed to viewing the candidates as a burden, it is possible to argue that the new member states might be part of the solution rather than part of the problem around a CFSP.