Since its inception in 1992 LIFE-Nature has played a key role in the EUu0092s strategy for bird conservation by supporting many conservation actions for Europeu0092s most threatened bird species. The aim of this report is to give an overview of the results achieved by LIFE-Nature for endangered bird species in the European Union and how it has contributed to achieving the objectives of the Birds Directive. Selected success stories will be used to introduce the scientific, ecological, socio-economic issues addressed and give some insights into the diversity of solutions that have been identified by LIFE project managers. The Birds Directive, which was the first major EU law to address the issue of nature conservation at the continental scale, is still, 25 years after its adoption, the main legal reference for the protection of Europeu0092s avifauna. While providing protection for all wild birds, the Directive requires Member States to take special conservation measures for the most threatened species and for migratory birds, also through the establishment of an EU wide network of Special Protection Areas (SPAs) where birds and their habitats have to be maintained in a good conservation status. To help achieve the objectives of the Birds Directive, EU Funds dedicated to projects for the conservation of birds and their habitats have been made available since 1984. Initially this was through the ACE and ACNAT programmes, which were succeeded in 1992 by the LIFE programme, almost half of which is dedicated to nature projects. This is at present the only dedicated financial source for bird conservation at the EU level. Up to 2003 LIFE-Nature has invested 367 million Euros in projects targeting threatened bird species. These are pilot and demonstration projects, aimed primarily at establishing the necessary conditions for the protection of Europeu0092s most endangered bird species.