• Contents
  • Foreword III
  • 1. Executive summary V
  • Part I: Methodological and formal issues of data comparability 1
  • 2. Introduction 1
  • 2.1. Aims and organization of the study 1
  • 2.2. How the study was conducted 2
  • 2.2.1. Conceptual and methodological framework 2
  • 2.2.2. Problems related to comparability and non-availability of data 4
  • 3. Terminology and background information 5
  • Part II: Inventory of existing and non-existing data 15
  • 4. EU regulations: implementing the Racial Equality Directive (and the Employment Equality Directive) 15
  • 4.1. Direct and indirect discrimination 23
  • 4.2. Harassment 29
  • 4.3. Instruction to discriminate 32
  • 4.4. Genuine and determining occupational requirements 39
  • 4.5. Positive action 43
  • 4.6. Burden of proof 49
  • 4.7. Specialised bodies 52
  • 5. Other legal basis for anti-discrimination: constitutional provisions 66
  • 6. Criminal law, penal provisions, racial motivation as aggravating circumstance 70
  • 7. Special legislation 76
  • 8. The Member Statesu0092 legal framework 80
  • 8.1. Recent developments in aliensu0092 legislation 80
  • 8.1.1. Immigration 80
  • 8.1.2. Asylum 85
  • 8.1.3. Integration/regularisation 88
  • 8.2. Autochthonous and u0091co-ethnicu0092 minorities 94
  • 8.3. International conventions 98
  • 9. Jurisdiction: complaints about and court cases concerning discrimination 102
  • 9.1. Anti-discrimination cases 102 XIII
  • 9.2. Penal cases/racial crimes 108
  • Part III: Common problems and conclusions 117
  • 10. Common and specific problems 117
  • 11. Conclusions and recommendations 118
  • 11.1. Options and strategies for improved data comparability 118
  • 11.2. Conclusions and recommendations to the EU and its Member States 119
  • Annex 121
  • References 129