One of the principal benefits of fisheries is the socio-economic impact on jobs and incomes, not just in fishing, but also in up- and down stream activities. The fishery sector is subject to competitive pressures which impact on labour, as do regulatory requirements and resource and capacity management measures. In the European Union, as elsewhere, fisheries-related employment frequently falls in areas which have few other alternative economic activities and these impacts can have a disproportionately negative effect on living conditions. Present policy within the European Union is to compensate for these negative effects, and to provide support for alternative employment through investments in job creation and training programmes. It is vital that the areas whose local economies are the most dependent upon the fishery sector are identified in order that efforts to reduce the negative impact of the fleet reductions can be targeted effectively.