The importance of sustainable management of non-market forest goods and services has increased during the last few years. This is also reflected in a number of policy documents within the EU. The new EU Rural Development Regulation speaks about the “non-productive investments", as investments to enhance the public amenity value of forests. The stakeholder consultation process within the EU Forestry Strategy and the report of the strategy’s implementation identify the issue of creating markets for currently non-market forest goods and services as an emerging issue. Finally, the EU Forest Action Plan (2007-2011) places the valuation and compensation for non-market forest goods and services as one of its 18 key actions.The issues related to non-market forest goods and services involve social and economic dimensions. Unlike market forest goods and services, non-market ones are not traditionally traded and their value is not defined by the market price. At the same time the access to non-market forest goods and services is largely unlimited and free in most of the EU Member States. These characteristics of non-market goods and services, combined with their growing importance and social demands, can lead to an un-sustainable management of these goods and services.