• Transportation revolution and european exodus.Migration costs and transatlantic relocation ;Steamships, oceanic travel conditions and the big four ;America's labor force from Europe ;British- and German-run transit connections from southem and eastern Europe ;Three countries, three leadersThe economics of migrant travel on north atlantic steamships.Transportation and the causes of transatlantic migration ;Barriers, perceived and real ;Rewards, risks and strategies for migrants ;Rewards. risks and strategies for shipping lines ;Public policy origins and operations ;OutcomesCompetition, conferences, and combinations, 1900-03.Introduction : risky management of a risky business ;An unexpected surge in migration ;Building for the future and pooling the risk ;The "failure" of the U.S. merchant marine in the age of steam ;J. P. Morgan's "flop" ;Three puzzles, three plausible solutions ;Cunard"s "splendid isolation"The north atlantic fare war of 1904.Piercing the historiographical fog ;Ballin's motives ;Escalating misjudgments ;Ismay's dismay and the atlantic lines' "combat weariness" ;Travel bargains and migration flows ;Lessons, recoveries. and misinterpretationsMore control at the gates, 1902-07.America's open door to the atlantic ;Constrained attempts at immigration restriction ;Concens about the "artificial" migration of "undesirables" ;Quality not quantity ;Protection, inspection, and selection ;Crowd processing ;Overlapping interests ;The commission compromise of 1907Coping with the cyclical slump of 1907-08.Capital and labor flows ;"You can always come back" ;Staying the course ;A return to the conference system and to the U.S. job market ;Congruent long viewsComfort and safety at sea, 1909-14.Migration and migrant transport after 1908 ;Repeat migration ;The modernized atlantic ferry ;The Titanic and "unsinkable" lower classes ;Roundtrip migraton, travelConclusionsEpilogue