• 1. Introduction
  • 2. The data
  • 3. The role of pupil background
  • 3.1 Ethnicity
  • 3.2 Gender
  • 4. Role of sorting into schools, LAs and neighbourhoods, and measuring school valueadded
  • 4.1 Role of sorting into schools, LAs and neighbourhoods
  • 4.2 Explaining school value-added
  • 5. The effect of school resources
  • 6. Conclusions
  • References