Recent decades have seen a significant increase in the participation of women in the labor market in a number of European countries. As a result there have been a growing number of papers examining these changes within countries. However, there have been many fewer papers examining the significant differences in the labor force participation rate of women across countries within Europe. There have also been relatively few papers examining related issues such as differential investment in human capital between men and women, employer and occupational segregation, and the allocation of resources within the family. The goal of this workshop is to examine a much wider set of issues concerning women and the labor market as well as some of the possible explanations for the cross-country differences in women’s behavior.