• Summary
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Aims of the overview
  • 1.2 Organisation of the report
  • 2 Methods
  • 2.1 Selection of countries
  • 2.2 Template for data collection
  • 2.3 Analysis
  • 2.4 Limitations
  • 3 Legal context
  • 3.1 Due diligence standard
  • 3.2 The process of FGM reporting
  • 4 criminal court cases
  • 4.1 ‘Typical’ vs. ‘atypical’ FGM cases
  • 4.2 Court cases: Countries in which FGM was performed
  • 4.3 The type IV question: the limits of FGM legislation and conventions
  • 5 Examples of novel approaches in prosecution – and prevention
  • 5.1 Error of prohibition
  • 5.2 Neglect of care
  • 6 identified cases that do not reach conviction
  • 7 Rumours
  • 8 Reasons for not reporting
  • 9 Immigrant communities at risk of FGM
  • 10 Policy suggestions
  • 11 Summary and conclusions
  • References
  • Appendix 1: Country experts
  • Appendix 2: Instructions to Country Experts
  • Appendix 3: WHO classification of FGM