• Disclaimer and Explanatory Note
  • Executive Summary
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Methodology, Definitions and Characteristics of Returnees
  • 2.1 Methodology
  • 2.2 Clarification of Concepts and Definitions
  • 2.3 General Characteristics of Returnees
  • Table 1: Indicative overview of Voluntary and Forced Return Actions
  • 3. The Political and Legal Framework
  • 3.1 Influence of European Legislation
  • 4. Return Actions
  • 4.1 Overview
  • 4.2 Voluntary Return
  • 4.2.1 Information Campaigns
  • 4.2.2 Incentives to Voluntary Return
  • 4.3 Forced Return
  • 4.3.1 Identification
  • 4.3.2 Procedures of Forced Return: ending of illegal stay and removal order
  • 4.3.3 Detention
  • 4.3.4 Transport and Removal Measures
  • 4.3.5 Sustainability of Forced Return
  • 5. Return Assistance – Return Counselling
  • 6. Bi-lateral and Multi-lateral Co-operation
  • Table 2: Type and status of Member States bi-lateral agreements with third countries
  • 7. Concluding Remarks