• 1. Introduction
  • 2. A brief retrospective overview
  • 3. EU gender equality legislation
  • 3.1. The pivotal role of Article 157 TFEU
  • 3.2. The Recast Directive
  • 3.3. Equal pay for men and women
  • 3.4. Equal treatment of men and women in employment
  • 3.5. Equal treatment of men and women in statutory social security schemes
  • 3.6. Equal treatment of men and women in occupational social security schemes
  • 3.7. Equal treatment of men and women engaged in an activity in a self-employed capacity
  • 3.8. The Pregnant Workers Directive
  • 3.9. Parental leave
  • 3.10. Equal treatment of men and women in the access to and the supply of goods and services
  • 4. Central concepts of EU gender equality law
  • 4.1. Direct discrimination
  • 4.2. Indirect discrimination
  • 4.3. Positive action
  • 4.4. Harassment and sexual harassment
  • 4.5. Instruction to discriminate
  • 5. How can EU gender equality law be enforced?
  • 5.1. Invoking gender equality law in national courts
  • 5.2. Burden of proof
  • 5.3. Defending rights
  • 5.4. Sanctions, compensation and reparation
  • 5.5. Victimisation
  • 5.6. Equality bodies
  • 5.7. Social dialogue
  • 5.8. The role of the European Commission
  • 6. Final observations
  • Annex I
  • Directives
  • Annex II
  • Selected Bibliography
  • Annex III
  • Members of the European Network of Legal Experts in the Field of Gender Equality