• Foreword
  • Executive summary
  • Introduction
  • I European Law
  • 1.1 The Anti-discrimination Directives
  • 1.2 Transposition
  • 1.3 Key concepts of European equality law
  • II On what grounds is discrimination prohibited?
  • III In which areas is discrimination prohibited?
  • IV The Non-discrimination Directives
  • 4.1 What is meant by discrimination?
  • 4.1.1 Direct discrimination
  • 4.1.2 ...
  • 4.2. Can discrimination ever be justified?
  • 4.3 What do the Directives say about positive action?
  • V Proving a case: specific evidence and the burden of proof
  • 5.1 Specific evidence
  • 5.1.1 Situation testing
  • 5.1.2 ...
  • 5.2 Proving a case: the shared or reversed burden of proof
  • 5.2.1...
  • VI How can individuals enforce the law?
  • VII Representation of victims
  • 7.1 Standing
  • 7.1.1 ...
  • 7.2 The role of equality bodies
  • 7.2.1 ...
  • 7.3 Interventions
  • 7.4 Friends of the court (amici curiae)
  • VIII Sanctions and remedies: the role of Courts and administrative authorities in enforcing Non-discrimination law
  • 8.1 Civil law
  • 8.1.1 ...
  • 8.2 Criminal law
  • 8.3 Administrative law
  • 8.4 Mediation
  • 8.5 The use of procedures and remedies in practice
  • IX How to use EU law
  • X Invoking EU law in domestic proceedings
  • 10.1 Provisions that have direct effect
  • 10.2 Interpretation of domestic law in compliance with the Directives
  • 10.3 Seeking interpretation from the national court or the CJEU?
  • XI Requesting a preliminary ruling
  • 11.1 Formulating the questions
  • 11.2 Proceedings before the CJEU
  • XII Invoking EU law in international proceedings
  • 12.1 European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)
  • 12.1.1 ...
  • 12.2 UN treaty bodies
  • Conclusions and final practical tips
  • Appendices