• Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • EU Proposal
  • International context
  • Structure of the report
  • I Domestic regulation of discrimination
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 States providing protection across the material scope of Council Directive2000/43 in respect of all relevant grounds
  • 1.3 States providing broad (but notcomprehensive) protection fromd iscrimination in relation to all the relevant grounds
  • 1.4 States providing significant protection in relation to all or most of the relevant grounds beyond the material scope of Council Directive 2000/78
  • 1.5 States providing uneven protection in relation to the relevant grounds
  • 1.6 States providing limited protection in relation to the relevant grounds
  • 1.7 Conclusion
  • II Approaches to “discrimination”
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Definitions of discrimination
  • 2.3 Harassment and freedom of expression
  • 2.4 Reasonable accommodation
  • 2.5 Positive action
  • III Material and personal scope
  • 3.1 Personal Scope
  • 3.1.1 Liability for Discrimination
  • 3.1.2 Protection from Discrimination
  • 3.1.3 Vicarious/ third party liability
  • 3.2 Material Scope
  • IV General exceptions
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 General justification defences
  • 4.3 An alternative approach: detailed statutory exceptions
  • 4.4 Exceptions concerned with religious autonomy
  • 4.5 Implied exceptions to prohibitions on discrimination
  • 4.6 Concluding remarks on exceptions
  • V Enforcement
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Effectiveness
  • 5.3 Judicial enforcement: the problem of costs
  • 5.4 Alternative means of enforcement
  • 5.5 Remedies
  • Conclusion
  • ANNEX: The state of play across the 33 states