• EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  • REPORT
  • 1 Societal and political background
  • 2 Welfare – general introduction
  • 3 Pain and discomfort in fish
  • 4 Welfare indicators
  • 4.1 Physiological indicators
  • 4.2 Behavioural indicators
  • 4.3 Other indicators
  • 5 Welfare issues
  • 5.1 Fish densities in farming
  • 5.2 Environmental parameters
  • 5.3 Malnutrition
  • 5.4 Food deprivation
  • 5.5 Cataracts
  • 5.6 Deformities
  • 5.6.1 Skeletal deformities
  • 5.6.2 Tissue deformities
  • 5.7 Vaccination – side effects
  • 5.8 Genetics
  • 5.9 Transport
  • 5.10 Pre-slaughter handling
  • 5.11 Stunning /sedation
  • 5.12 Organic production
  • 6 Past and current EC research projects on welfare issues
  • 7 Welfare – Economic value and product quality
  • 8 Legislation
  • 9 Acknowledgements
  • 10 References