• Members of the European Network of Legal Experts in the Field of Gender Equality
  • Part I: Executive Summary
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Background
  • 2.1. The notion of multiple discrimination
  • 2.2. The intersectionality debate and its relevance for (EU) legal discourse
  • 2.3. Reflections of these developments in EU law
  • a) General problems of EU equality law and multiple discrimination
  • b) ECJ case law
  • c) Community legislation, Council and Commission documents
  • d) Planned legislation
  • 2.4. Preliminary assessment from a gender perspective
  • 3. Main findings of national reports
  • 3.1. Preliminary remarks
  • 3.2. How (if at all) are cases addressed by courts and equality bodies where a woman is discriminated on grounds of her sex or gender and at least one additional ground?
  • a) Groups of case examples – combinations of gender with other grounds
  • b) Summary of case examples
  • c) Cases where multiple discrimination against women was acknowledged
  • d) Cases where multiple discrimination against women was not acknowledged
  • e) Conclusion
  • 3.3. Multiple discrimination in national legislation
  • a) Is the phenomenon mentioned or even defined in national legislation?
  • b) Is a definition necessary to achieve adequate protection under national law?
  • 3.4. Are there barriers in law that prevent adequate protection against multiple discrimination?
  • a) Lack of awareness
  • b) Comparator approach
  • c) Compartmentalisation
  • 3.5. Practical consequences of acknowledging multiple discrimination (‘added value’)
  • 3.6. On the necessity of Community legislation
  • a) Community legislation in general
  • b) On the need of a definition of multiple discrimination in Community law
  • c) Towards cautious steps in Community legislation
  • 4. Recommendations
  • Bibliography
  • Part II: Reports from the Experts of the Member States and EEA Countries
  • Annex I: Questionnaire