• EXECUTIVE SUMMARY<b>RÉSUMÉ
  • ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
  • INTRODUCTION
  • 1. OVERVIEW OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN DEMOGRAPHIC AND LABOUR MARKET TRENDS AFFECTING PENSION INCOME
  • 1.1 Income situation and pension incomes of elderly women and men
  • 1.2 Factors affecting gender differences in pension income
  • 2. EXISTING PENSION SCHEMES AND current TRENDS IN PENSION REFORMS
  • 2.1 The EU role and approach to pension systems and gender aspects
  • 2.2 Main characteristics of existing pension schemes
  • 2.3 Recent trends in pension reforms and the effect of the 2008 financial crisis
  • 2.4 The performance of pension systems and the projected effects of pension reforms
  • 3. ASSESSING PENSION SCHEMES AND RECENT REFORMS IN A GENDER PERSPECTIVE
  • 3.1 The closer link between benefits and lifelong earnings risks amplifying gender inequalities
  • 3.2 Reducing gender differences in retirement age
  • 3.3 The move towards multi-pillar schemes could increase gender gaps in pension income
  • 3.4 Gender differences in access to minimum pension schemes
  • 3.5 Care credits are important to support women’s pension entitlements
  • 3.6 Derived pension rights may favour married women, but reinforce gender roles and penalise single women and double-earner couples
  • 3.7 Performance of the pension systems in a gender perspective
  • 4. PENSION SCHEMES FOR SPECIFIC GROUPS: THE PRESENT SITUATION, REFORMS UNDERWAY AND POSSIBLE ASSOCIATED RISKS
  • 4.1 Gender differences in the fragile situation of ethnic minorities and migrant workers from third countries
  • 4.2 Gender effects of the portability of pensions rights within the EU
  • 4.3 Atypical workers and gender equality
  • 4.4 Inactive individuals and derived pension rights: the case of lone women and men and survivors
  • 5. CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCE LIST
  • ANNEXES
  • <List of tables
  • List of figures
  • List of boxes