• Executive summary
  • Introduction
  • I The European Convention on Human Rights
  • 1.1 The substantive content of the requirement of non-discrimination under the ECHR
  • 1.1.1 A non-exhausitive list of prohibited grounds of discrimination
  • 1.1.2 The significance of the prohibition of discrimination and the question of a hierachy of grounds
  • 1.1.3 The forms of prohibited discrimination
  • 1.1.3.1 The obligation to take into account existing differences
  • 1.1.3.2 Facilitating the burden of proving discrimination
  • 1.1.4 Positive action
  • 1.2 The scope of application of Article 14 ECHR
  • 1.3 Protocol No. 12 to the ECHR (2000)
  • II The European Social Charter
  • 2.1 The European Social Charter of 1961
  • 2.1.1 The legal framework prohibiting discrimination
  • 2.1.2 The legal measures promoting the full effectiveness of the prohibition of discrimination
  • 2.1.3 Policy measures intended to improve professional integration of target groups
  • 2.2 The revised European Social Charter of 1996
  • 2.2.1 Strenghtening the non-discrimination requirement (I): the due diligence obligation to target vulnerable groups
  • 2.2.2 Strenghtening the non-discrimination requirement (II): the shift of the evidentiary burden in discrimination cases
  • 2.2.3 Strenghtening the non-discrimination requirement (III): the stigmatisation of vulnerable groups and the aggravated violation of the Charter
  • 2.2.4 Strenghtening the right of persons with disabilities to independence, social integration and participation in the life of the community
  • 2.2.5 Protecting elderly persons from discrimination
  • III A Comaprision with the EU Directives: Key interpretive challenges
  • 3.1 Race and ethnic origin
  • 3.2 Disability
  • 3.3 Sexual orientation
  • 3.5 Age
  • Conclusions